Research in our program is guided by the vision that emerging tools in 3D electron microscopy hold great promise to be developed as powerful tools for imaging cells, viruses and molecules at high resolution in their native states.

Thus, we developed focused ion beam-based technologies to reveal the sub-cellular architecture of whole mammalian cells at resolutions ~ 10 nm, coupled with methods for correlative imaging.

We developed approaches for visualizing the components of signaling assemblies in situ in intact bacterial cells.

We developed powerful computational tools to derive molecular structures for envelope glycoproteins and their complexes with ligands and antibodies as displayed on intact retroviruses.

Finally, in what is perhaps the most exciting frontier of all, we have demonstrated that structures of small, dynamic proteins can be determined using cryo-electron microscopy at atomic resolution.

Highlights of our progress in developing these technologies and in their application to selected biological problems